Sunday, October 31, 2004

Biblical Literature, Printed editions

The first edition of the entire Hebrew Bible was printed at Soncino (in Italy) in 1488 with punctuation and accents, but without any commentary. The second complete

Friday, October 29, 2004


Officially  State of Bahrain,  Arabic  Dawlat Al-Bahrayn   small Arab state in the Persian Gulf. It is an archipelago consisting of Bahrain Island—extending about 30 miles (50 km) from north to south and 10 miles (16 km) from east to west—and some 30 smaller islands. Its Arabic name means “two seas.” Bahrain is situated in a bay on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf; Saudi Arabia lies to the west across the Gulf of Bahrain, while the Qatar peninsula

Dominance Hierarchy

In most cases

Wednesday, October 27, 2004


City, in the highlands of east-central São Paulo estado (“state”), Brazil. It lies at 2,200 feet (670 m) above sea level, near the Itapetininga River. Formerly called Nossa Senhora dos Prazeres de Itapetininga, it was given town status in 1770 and was made the seat of a municipality in 1771. Agriculture and industry both contribute to Itapetininga's economy. The principal crops in the region are

Tuesday, October 26, 2004

Coin Glass

Glassware usually in the form of wineglasses, goblets, or tankards enclosing a coin either in the foot, or in the hollow knop of the stem, rarely in an interior bulb. A Venetian specimen of coin glass dated 1647 is known, but the principal occurrence is in English glass from about 1650 onward. It was a useful device for expressing Jacobite or anti-Jacobite sympathies with either

Monday, October 25, 2004


City, Bas-Saint-Laurent region, eastern Quebec province, Canada. The city lies on a hillside sloping gently toward its deepwater port (sheltered by the Île Saint-Barnabé) on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River. The land was granted to Augustin Rouer de la Cardonnière in 1688. Germain Lepage was the first settler (1696), and Recollet missionaries and Jesuits followed in 1701. The name

Paul-boncour, Joseph

After receiving a degree in law from the University of Paris, Paul-Boncour practiced law, organized the legal council of the Bourses du Travail (syndicalist workers'

Sunday, October 24, 2004

Paul-boncour, Joseph

Radioactive chemical element of the actinide series in Group IIIb of the periodic table, atomic number 94. It is the most important transuranium element because of its use as fuel in certain types of nuclear reactors and as an ingredient in nuclear weapons. Plutonium, warm because of energy released in alpha decay, is a silvery metal that takes on a yellow tarnish in

Friday, October 22, 2004

Bondfield, Margaret (grace)

Bondfield had little schooling. Starting as a draper's assistant at 14, she found conditions miserable and joined the National Union of Shop Assistants at its formation. In 1899 she was the only woman delegate to the Trades Union Congress, and

Argentina, The arts

The fine arts of Argentina historically found their inspiration in Europe, particularly in France and Spain, but the turbulence and complexity of Argentine national life—and of Latin America in general—have also found expression in the arts. In literature the Modernismo movement of the late 19th century and the Ultraísmo of the early 20th were both influenced by the

Wednesday, October 20, 2004

Baburen, Dirck Van

After studying painting with a portraitist and history painter in Utrecht, Baburen traveled to Rome about 1612. His most important Italian commission was the decoration of a chapel in the

Piccard, Jacques (-ernest-jean)

He was born in Brussels while his Swiss-born father was professor at the University of Brussels. After graduating from the École

Monday, October 18, 2004

Hale, Sir Matthew

Hale was the son of Robert Hale, a barrister. Orphaned at

Sunday, October 17, 2004

Attalus, Priscus

Attalus was born a pagan and was baptized by an Arian bishop. He was a senator at the time of Alaric's second siege of Rome, and he was named emperor of the West by the Goths after the city surrendered in 409. Attalus then urged the legitimate emperor, Honorius, to vacate his throne.


Any of certain plant species of the genus Chrysanthemum, native to southwestern Asia, whose aromatic flower heads, when powdered, constitute the active ingredient in the insecticide called pyrethrin, or pyrethrum. The plants were formerly considered a separate genus, Pyrethrum. The typical species, the perennial C. coccineum, is the florists' pyrethrum, commonly

Friday, October 15, 2004

Pacific Ocean, The trade winds

The trade winds of the Pacific represent the eastern and equatorial parts of the air circulation system; they originate in the subtropical high-pressure zones that are most pronounced, respectively, over the northeast and southeast Pacific between the 30th and 40th parallels N and S. The obliquity of the ecliptic (an angle of approximately 23 1/2° that is the difference between

Ramiro Ii

King of Leon and Asturias in Christian Spain from 931 to 951. The second son of King Ordoño II, he became king on the abdication of his elder brother, Alfonso IV. Ramiro was an exceptional general who scored several major victories (e.g., the Battle of Simancas, 939) over the caliphate of Córdoba in Muslim Spain. In 944 he negotiated a five-year truce with the caliph 'Abd

Thursday, October 14, 2004

Iron Knob

Town, northeastern Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, 247 miles (397 km) northwest of Adelaide by rail. It is the centre for one of the richest deposits of iron ore in the Southern Hemisphere. Mining rights were acquired in 1897, and in 1901 the Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Ltd. (BHP), began developing the deposits of iron ore in Iron Knob hill. The modern town lies in an extremely arid region

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

São João Del Rei

City, south-central Minas Gerais estado (“state”), Brazil. It lies along the Lenheiro River on a site sandwiched between two hills, at 2,822 feet (860 m) above sea level. Originally a gold-mining town, it was given city status in 1838. The city retains a colonial atmosphere and has two notable 18th-century Baroque churches, the Carmo and the Church of São Francisco de Assis, with sculptures by


The orbit of a planet is, if unaffected

Saturday, October 09, 2004


City, seat (1879) of Spokane county, eastern Washington, U.S., at the falls of the Spokane River. Frequented by trappers when the North West Company built a trading post there in 1810, the site was settled in 1872 and laid out in 1878. Known as Spokane Falls (for the Spokane Indians, whose name means “sun people”), it developed after the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway. Abundant waterpower

Friday, October 08, 2004

Ghent-bruges School

Group of manuscript illuminators and scribes active during the last quarter of the 15th and first part of the 16th centuries, principally in the Flemish cities of Ghent and Bruges. Credit for founding the tradition that included such masters as Nicolas Spierinc, Liévin van Lathem, Alexander and Simon Bening, and Gerard Horenbout was formerly given to the Master of Mary

Wednesday, October 06, 2004

Lena River

Among the peoples living in the Lena basin, mainly on the banks of the river and its tributaries, Russians are most numerous, followed by the Sakha (Yakut; a Turkic-speaking people), Evenk, and Yukaghir. There are several industrial and cultural centres and farming communities. Most of the Lena River basin lies within Sakha (Yakutia) republic of northeastern Siberia, whose

Monday, October 04, 2004

Insurance, Abandonment clause

If salvaging or rehabilitating a ship or cargo following a marine loss costs more than the goods are worth, the loss is said to be constructively total. Under such conditions, the ocean marine policy permits the insured to abandon the damaged ship or cargo to the insurer and make a claim for the entire value. In this case, the salvage belongs to the insurer, who may dispose

Friday, October 01, 2004

France, History Of, Industrial production

After 1740 overall production in France rose annually by about 2 percent, and even more in some sectors. During the later decades of the 18th century, French industrial production grew rapidly, although not on the same scale as in Britain, whose industrial development had begun 60 years before that of the French. Coal mining was a major industry by 1789, its production being nearly