Thursday, December 30, 2004

Arden, John

Arden grew up in the industrial town of Barnsley, the character of which he captured in his play The Workhouse

Wednesday, December 29, 2004

Dalhousie, James Andrew Broun Ramsay, Marquess And 10th Earl Of

Dalhousie also took advantage of every opportunity to acquire territory by peaceful means. The East India Company, which was no longer an independent corporation but largely under the control of the British government, was rapidly becoming the predominant power in India. It had concluded alliances with Indian rulers, promising to support them and their heirs

Tuesday, December 28, 2004

Biblical Literature, Bel and the Dragon

The third Greek addition to the Book of Daniel is the story of Bel and the Dragon. The Babylonians worshipped the idol of the god Bel and daily provided him with much food, but Daniel proved to the King that the food was in reality eaten by the priests. The priests were punished by death and Bel's temple destroyed. The Babylonians also worshipped a dragon, but Daniel declined


The name Kordestan means “Country of the Kurds,” referring to the region's principal inhabitants. After the Turkish invasion of Iran in the 11th century AD (Seljuq period), the name Kurdistan was applied to the region comprising the northwestern

Monday, December 27, 2004


(In), chemical element, rare metal of main Group IIIa, or boron group, of the periodic table. Of a brilliant, silvery-white lustre, indium was discovered (1863) by Ferdinand Reich and Theodor Richter while they were examining zinc ore samples. The presence of a predominant indigo spectral line suggested the name. Softer than lead and quite plastic, indium can be scratched with

Saturday, December 25, 2004


Chondroectodermal dysplasia (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome) is a very rare, congenital disorder. It is heritable (autosomal recessive). Affected individuals exhibit heart

Friday, December 24, 2004

Gabrieli, Giovanni

Various motets, among them In ecclesiis; madrigals in various collections; Canzoni e sonate (1615); Sacrae symphoniae, book 1 (1597), including the Sonata pian'e forte; Sacrae symphoniae (1615); Concerti di Andrea et di Giovanni Gabrieli a 6–16 voci (1587, containing pieces by Andrea).

Wednesday, December 22, 2004

Late Blight

Disease of potato and tomato plants that is caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans. The disease occurs in humid regions with temperature ranges of between 40° and 80° F (4° and 29° C); hot, dry weather checks its spread. Potato or tomato vines that are infected may rot within two weeks. The Irish potato famines of the mid-19th century were caused by late blight. The disease destroyed

Ear Disease, Perichondritis

Infection of the cartilage of the outer ear, called perichondritis, is unusual but may occur from injury or from swimming in polluted water. It is due to a particular microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is a greenish or brownish, musty or foul-smelling discharge from the outer-ear canal, while the affected outer ear becomes tender, dusky red, and two to three

Tuesday, December 21, 2004

Scandinavian Literature, The impact of the reformation on Swedish letters

Two dates mark the beginning of modern Swedish history: 1523—the breach with Denmark and Gustav I Vasa's accession; and 1527—the breach with Rome and the establishment of a national Lutheran Church. The political revolution that eventually brought Sweden to the position of a European power had no considerable effect on literature until a century later, but the Reformation

Monday, December 20, 2004

Channel Islands

French  Îles Normandes, or Anglo-normandes,   archipelago in the English Channel, west of the Cotentin peninsula of France, at the entrance to the Gulf of Saint-Malo, 80 miles (130 km) south of the English coast. The islands are dependencies of the British crown (and not strictly part of the United Kingdom), having been so attached since the Norman Conquest of 1066, when they formed part of the duchy of Normandy. They comprise four

Sunday, December 19, 2004


City, Maricopa county, south-central Arizona, U.S. Founded in the 1890s, the city was named for veterinarian and real-estate developer A.J. Chandler, who built an extensive agricultural canal system in the area. Chandler is a winter resort in a cotton, alfalfa, citrus fruit, pecan, sugar beet, and cattle-raising region of the irrigated Salt River valley. The city emerged in the late

Saturday, December 18, 2004


Pinyin  Yong'an,   town in central Fukien sheng (province), China. Situated on the Sha River, a southern tributary of the Min River, which provides the main southwest-to-northeast route through central Fukien, Yung-an is a natural route centre on the railway line from Kiangsi province via Nan-p'ing to Amoy (Hsia-men). From Yung-an a network of highways radiates to Ch'üan-chou on the coast north

Thursday, December 16, 2004


Marshes are common at the mouths of rivers, especially where extensive deltas have been built. The river brings a steady supply of water. The gradient

Wednesday, December 15, 2004

Yenisey River

The peoples of the Yenisey valley are diverse. Around the western headwaters (Great and Little Yenisey) Tuvans predominate in the rural areas, but they are joined by significant numbers of Russians in Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva. To the north of Tuva the Krasnoyarsk kray (territory) of Russia extends down the entire valley northward to the Kara Sea; its population comprises

Equatorial Guinea, Linguistic composition

While each ethnic group speaks its own language, other linguistic influences are at work. The first is Spanish, the official language of the republic, which is taught in schools and used by the press and is the only means of communication common to both Bioko and the mainland. The second influence is pidgin English, which is used extensively in petty commerce and forms

Monday, December 13, 2004

Sangre De Cristo Mountains

Segment of the southern Rocky Mountains, extending south-southeastward for about 250 miles (400 km) from Poncha Pass, in south-central Colorado, U.S., to the low divide southwest of Las Vegas, N.M., in north-central New Mexico. Usually considered an extension of the Front Range (q.v.), they are divided into the Culebra and Sangre de Cristo ranges in Colorado. Many of their glaciated summits

Sunday, December 12, 2004


Abbreviation  of Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey  (Russian: “Chief Administration of Corrective Labour Camps”), the system of Soviet labour camps and accompanying detention and transit camps and prisons that from the 1920s to the mid-1950s housed the political prisoners and criminals of the Soviet Union. At its height the Gulag imprisoned millions of people. The name Gulag had been largely unknown in the West until the publication

China, Population distribution

Because of complex natural conditions, the population of China is quite unevenly distributed. Population density varies strikingly, with the greatest contrast occurring between the eastern half of China and the lands of the west and the northwest. Exceptionally high population densities occur in the Yangtze Delta, in the Pearl River Delta, and on the Ch'eng-tu

Friday, December 10, 2004

Fukasaku, Kinji

Japanese filmmaker (b. July 3, 1930, Mito, Japan—d. Jan. 12, 2003, Tokyo, Japan), created a series of increasingly violent and well-received yakuza (gangster) movies. His first movie was Hakuchu no buraikan (1961; Greed in Broad Daylight). Standouts among the more than 60 films that he directed were Kurotokage (1968; Black Lizard), Gunki hatameku motoni (1972; Under the Flag of the Rising Sun), and Jingi naki

Thursday, December 09, 2004

Arne, Thomas (augustine)

According to tradition, Arne was the son of an upholsterer in King Street, Covent Garden. Educated at Eton, he was intended for the law, but by secretly practicing he acquired such mastery of the violin and keyboard instruments that his father withdrew all objections to a musical career. Except


(order Sphenisciformes), any of the flightless marine birds of the family Spheniscidae. They are limited in distribution to the Southern Hemisphere. Although a few penguins inhabit temperate regions and one, the Gálapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), lives at the Equator, the majority of the 18 species breed on islands in subantarctic

Wednesday, December 08, 2004

Biblical Literature, The Deuteronomic “theology of history”

The Deuteronomic “theology of history” shows through very clearly in Judges: unless the people of the Covenant remain faithful and obedient to Yahweh, they will suffer the due consequences of disobedience, whether it be an overtly willful act or an unthinking negligence in keeping the Covenant promise. The Deuteronomist worked out a formula for his theology of

Tuesday, December 07, 2004

Girard, Stephen

Girard shipped out to sea at the age of 14 and by 1774 was captain of a ship involved in U.S. coastal trade with the West Indies. Stymied by British blockades

Sunday, December 05, 2004


King of the West Saxons, or Wessex (757–786), in England who succeeded to the throne following the deposition of Sigebert. Cynewulf was constantly at war with the Welsh. In 779 Offa of Mercia defeated him and took Bensington. In 785 he was surprised and killed, with all his thanes present, at Marten, in modern Wiltshire (Merantune), by Cyneheard, the brother of the deposed Sigebert.

Scandinavian Literature, Finno-Swedish literature

A significant literature in the Swedish language developed in Finland during the 1800s. Its emergence can be traced to the works of Johan Ludvig Runeberg. His epic poems, Elgskyttarne (1832; “The Moose Hunters”) and Hanna (1836), won him a place in Swedish letters. Notable, too, were the writings of Zacharias Topelius, which contributed to the development of the Finnish historical novel.

Saturday, December 04, 2004

Nur Al-din

Nur al-Din succeeded his father as the atabeg (ruler) of Halab in 1146, owing nominal allegiance to the 'Abbasid caliph of Baghdad. Before his rule, a major reason for the success of the Crusaders was the disunity of the Muslim rulers of the region, who

Friday, December 03, 2004


On the death of his father, Edward the Elder, in 924, Athelstan was elected king of Wessex and Mercia, where he had been brought up by his aunt, Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians. Crowned king of the whole country at Kingston on Sept. 4, 925, he proceeded to establish boundaries and rule firmly. His dominion

Wednesday, December 01, 2004

Oral Roberts University

Private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S. An interdenominational Protestant university, it emphasizes fundamentalist Christian values in its programs. A range of undergraduate programs leading to a bachelor's degree is offered through schools of Arts and Sciences, Business, and Education, and through the Anna Vaughn School