Sunday, January 30, 2005

Bert, Paul

French physiologist, politician, and diplomat, founder of modern aerospace medicine, whose research into the effects of air pressure on the body helped make possible the exploration of space and the ocean depths. While professor of physiology at the Sorbonne (1869–86), he found that the illness suffered by animals at high altitudes is caused

Saturday, January 29, 2005


Aldhelm was trained in Latin and in Celtic-Irish scholarship by Malmesbury's Irish founder and went on to study at the famous school at Canterbury, where he was exposed

Powell, Cecil Frank

British physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1950 for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and for the resulting discovery of the pion (pi-meson), a heavy subatomic particle. The pion proved to be the hypothetical particle proposed in 1935 by Yukawa Hideki of Japan in his theory

Friday, January 28, 2005


Although culturally much like other Sahaptin Indians of the Plateau, the Yakima acquired historical distinction in the Yakima Indian Wars (1855–58), a failed attempt by

Wednesday, January 26, 2005

African American Literature, The Black Arts movement

The assassination of Malcolm X, eloquent exponent of black nationalism, in 1965 in New York and the espousal of “Black Power” by previously integrationist civil rights organizations such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) helped to galvanize a generation of young black writers into rethinking the purpose


Irish  Cill Dara  county in the province of Leinster, east-central Ireland. It comprises part of the lowland west of the Wicklow Mountains and part of the Irish central lowland. With an area of 654 square miles (1,694 square km), it is bounded on the north by County Meath, on the east by Dublin and Wicklow, on the south by Carlow, and on the west by Laoighis and Offaly. The River Liffey forms a gorge at Pollaphuca

Monday, January 24, 2005


Also spelled  Alwur,   city, northeastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. The city is surrounded by a wall and moat and is dominated by a fort on a conical hill against a backdrop of a range of hills. Alwar was made the capital of Alwar princely state in 1775; it contains the 14th-century tomb of Tarang Sultan (the brother of Firuz Shah) and several ancient mosques. The palace, which adjoins a picturesque

Maastricht Treaty

Formally  Treaty on European Union  international agreement approved by the heads of government of the states of the European Community (EC) in Maastricht, Netherlands, in December 1991. Ratified by all EC member states (voters in Denmark rejected the original treaty but later approved a slightly modified version), the treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993. The treaty established

Saturday, January 22, 2005

Armstrong, Samuel Chapman

The son of American missionaries to Hawaii, Armstrong attended Oahu College for two years before going to the United States in 1860. He enrolled at Williams College; but, on the outbreak

Lbk Culture

Formerly  Danubian Culture,   Neolithic culture that expanded over large areas of Europe north and west of the Danube River (from Slovakia to the Netherlands) about the 5th millennium BC. Farmers probably practiced a form of shifting cultivation on the loess soil. Emmer wheat and barley were grown, and domestic animals, usually cattle, were kept. The name LBK derives from an abbreviation of the German

Friday, January 21, 2005


Also spelled  Baranovici,   town, Brest oblast (province), Belarus, on the southern edge of the Novogrudok Hills. It developed from a small village in the late 19th century into a major railway junction, with lines to Moscow, Warsaw, and other eastern European centres. It has cotton, food-processing, and machine construction industries. Pop. (1991 est.) 166,700.

Thursday, January 20, 2005

Tigranes Ii The Great

Tigranes was the son or brother of Artavasdes I and a member of the dynasty founded in the early 2nd century by Artaxias. He was given as a hostage to the Parthian king Mithradates II, but later he purchased his freedom by ceding 70 valleys bordering on Media, in northwestern

Wednesday, January 19, 2005


Todd McCarthy and Charles Flynn (eds.), Kings of the Bs: Working Within the Hollywood System (1975).

Tuesday, January 18, 2005

Paleolithic Period

At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period (about 2,500,000 to 200,000 years ago), simple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors. A somewhat more sophisticated Lower Paleolithic tradition,

Sunday, January 16, 2005

Ulam, Stanislaw Marcin

Ulam received a doctoral degree (1933) at the Polytechnic Institute in Lvov (now Lviv). At the invitation of John von Neumann, he worked at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New

Saturday, January 15, 2005

Paleolithic Period

Any of a series of unmanned U.S. scientific satellites developed to observe cosmic objects from above the Earth's atmosphere. OAO-2, launched Dec. 7, 1968, carried two large telescopes and a complement of spectrometers and other auxiliary devices. It weighed more than 4,200 pounds (1,900 kilograms), the heaviest satellite orbited up to that time. OAO-2 was able to photograph young stars that

Friday, January 14, 2005

Olympic Games, Lake Placid, New York, U.S., 1932

Controversies surrounding the speed skating

Thursday, January 13, 2005

Mckim, Charles Follen

McKim was educated at Harvard and at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was trained as a draftsman by the architect H.H. Richardson while the latter was completing Trinity Church, Boston. In 1879 he joined William Rutherford Mead

Wednesday, January 12, 2005

Ailly, Pierre D'

D'Ailly studied at the College of Navarre of the

Tuesday, January 11, 2005

Literature, Danish.

Danish writers cast reality to the wind and explored “surreality” in 2001. Per Højholt's novel Auricula described a universal silence that is followed by the marvelous conception of actual ears that witness pivotal events of the 20th century; gossip with artists, philosophers, and politicians; and serve as “ear witnesses

Bahram Vi Chubin

Prominent as master of the household in the Byzantine wars of the Sasanian king Hormizd IV, Bahram later received the supreme command in Khorasan and was able to repel a Turkish invasion.

Sunday, January 09, 2005


The yang-ch'in has four or five bridges with sets of strings on each bridge pitched whole steps apart and neighbouring

Saturday, January 08, 2005


Also spelled  Atheling, or Etheling,   in Anglo-Saxon England, generally any person of noble birth. Use of the term was usually restricted to members of a royal family, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it is used almost exclusively for members of the royal house of Wessex. It was occasionally used after the Norman Conquest to designate members of the royal family—e.g., William the Aetheling, son and heir of King

Friday, January 07, 2005


City, central São Paulo estado (“state”), Brazil. It lies near the Pardo River in the Serra de Botucatu at 2,549 feet (777 m) above sea level. It was given town status in 1855 and was made the seat of a municipality in 1876. Crops (including coffee, cotton, rice, sugarcane, feijão [beans], and potatoes) grown in the region are processed in the city, which also has foundries, textile mills, bakeries, and factories

Beza, Theodore

After studying law at Orléans, Fr. (1535–39), Beza established a practice in Paris, where he published Juvenilia (1548), a volume of amorous verse that earned him a reputation as a leading Latin poet. On recovering

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Aerospace Industry, Avionics

Avionics includes all instruments, sensors, and electronic equipment and the electrical systems that link them to each other and to aerospace vehicle-control systems. It encompasses the functional equipment for guidance, navigation, and communications. A modern airline transport can contain more than 1,000 sensors and “black boxes.” The latter are metal or plastic

China, Korea and the Sino-Japanese War

After the Meiji Restoration, Japan made many efforts, all in vain, to open new and direct intercourse with

Tuesday, January 04, 2005

Habitual Offender

Person who frequently has been convicted of criminal behaviour and is presumed to be a danger to society. In an attempt to protect society from such criminals, penal systems throughout the world provide for lengthier terms of imprisonment for them than for first-time offenders. In the 1990s habitual-offender laws became harsher, and in extreme cases some offenders

Monday, January 03, 2005


In normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it. Such a theory

Saturday, January 01, 2005


Plural  Cilia,   short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue cells of most animals and provides the means for locomotion of protozoans of the phylum Ciliophora. Cilia may be fused in longitudinal rows to form membranes, in shorter transverse rows to form membranelles, or in tufts to form cirri. Capable of beating in unison, cilia move mammalian ova through oviducts, generate

Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel

A precocious musician who remained successful, C.P.E. Bach was his father's true successor and an important figure in his own right. In his autobiography he writes: “For composition and keyboard-playing, I have never had