Monday, February 28, 2005

Alcott, Bronson

The self-educated son of a poor farmer, Alcott traveled in the South as a peddler before establishing a series of schools for children. His educational theories owed something to J.H. Pestalozzi, the Swiss reformer, but more to the examples

Sunday, February 27, 2005

Harrison, Anna

In 1858 Anna's house was destroyed in a fire, and she spent the remaining six years of her life with her son John Scott Harrison, the only one of her children to outlive her. She was buried beside her husband in North Bend, Ohio.

Saturday, February 26, 2005

Alcott, Bronson

In analytical chemistry, a technique for identifying and quantitatively analyzing the chemical composition of substances by observing the thermal behaviour of a sample as it is heated. The technique is based on the fact that as a substance is heated, it undergoes reactions and phase changes that involve absorption or emission of heat. In DTA the temperature of

Friday, February 25, 2005

Yako

The Yako are mainly yam farmers; subsidiary crops include cocoyams (taro), corn (maize), okra, and pumpkin. The main cash crop is palm oil. The Yako occupy compact villages divided into wards, each containing several patrilineal clans. Patrilineal

Tz'u-hsi

Pinyin  Cixi,  also called  (Wade–Giles romanization) Hsiao-ch'in, or Hsien Huang-hou,  byname  Empress Dowager  consort of the Hsien-feng emperor (reigned 1850–61), mother of the T'ung-chih emperor (reigned 1861–75), and adoptive mother of the Kuang-hsü emperor (reigned 1875–1908), who dominated the Chinese empire for almost half a century. Ruling through a clique of conservative, corrupt officials, she maintained an iron grip over the Manchu Imperial house (Ch'ing dynasty, 1644–1911/12), becoming one

Wednesday, February 23, 2005

Swan Islands

Spanish  Islas Del Cisne,   two islets (Greater and Lesser Swan) in the Caribbean Sea, 97 mi (156 km) north of Honduras. Discovered by Christopher Columbus on St. Anne's day in 1502, they were named Islas Santa Ana. The islands, only 3 sq mi (8 sq km) in area, served as a pirate haunt from the 16th through the 18th century. In 1775 they appeared on a map as the Swan Islands. The notorious U.S. filibuster William Walker occupied them in 1860; following

Tuesday, February 22, 2005

Tz'u-hsi

Formerly (1969–73)  National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws  American organization, founded in 1969 to centralize state abortion-rights efforts and continuing its mission thereafter to protect and promote reproductive freedom. The organization consists of three related entities: NARAL Inc., a nonprofit organization that focuses on defending abortion rights and on making abortions less necessary; NARAL-PAC, a registered

Monday, February 21, 2005

Coleridge, Sara

During her childhood, her father was seldom at home, and his brother-in-law Robert Southey chiefly influenced Sara's early years. She did not see her father from 1812 to 1822, when she visited him at Highgate

Sunday, February 20, 2005

Mina

Also called  Meo, or Mewati,   tribe and caste inhabiting Rajasthan and Punjab states in northern India, and Punjab province, Pakistan, who speak Hindi and claim descent from the Rajputs. The Mina are possibly of inner Asiatic origin, and tradition suggests that they migrated to India in the 7th century with the Rajputs, but no other link between the two has been substantiated. In the 11th century, the Meo

Valence Electron

Any of the fundamental negatively charged particles in the outermost region of atoms that enters into the formation of chemical bonds. Whatever the type of chemical bond (ionic, covalent, metallic) between atoms, changes in the atomic structure are restricted to the outermost, or valence, electrons. They are more weakly attracted to the positive atomic nucleus than

Saturday, February 19, 2005

Kirkpatrick, Ralph

Kirkpatrick studied piano from age six and began to play harpsichord in 1930. He graduated from Harvard University in 1931 and then went to Paris to continue his studies. His teachers included Wanda Landowska, the French conductor

Friday, February 18, 2005

New Castle

County, northern Delaware, U.S., bounded by Pennsylvania to the north, New Jersey to the east (the Delaware River constituting the border), the Smyrna River to the south, and Maryland to the west. The county is bisected east-west by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (completed 1829), around which are state parks and wildlife areas. Other waterways are the Christina River and the

Wednesday, February 16, 2005

Forbes, James David

Educated at the University of Edinburgh, Forbes became a professor there in 1833. Between 1836 and 1844 he published four series of “Researches on Heat” in which he described the polarization (alignment of waves to vibrate in a plane) of radiant infrared heat by the mineral

Hop

Either of two species of the genus Humulus, nonwoody annual or perennial vines in the hemp family (Cannabeceae) native to temperate North America, Eurasia, and South America. The hops used in the brewery industry are the dried female flower clusters (cones) of the common hop (H. lupulus). The Japanese hop (H. japonicus) is a quick-growing annual species used

Tuesday, February 15, 2005

Beverly

City, Essex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It is situated on Beverly Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, just north of Salem. Settled about 1626, it was named for Beverley, England, when incorporated as a town (township) in 1668. It early developed as a shipping centre, and the schooner Hannah, claimed to be the first ship of the U.S. Navy, was commissioned (September 5, 1775) at Glover's

Sunday, February 13, 2005

Maugham, W. Somerset

Maugham was orphaned at the age of 10; he was brought up by an uncle and educated at King's School, Canterbury. After a year at Heidelberg, he entered St. Thomas' medical school,

Saturday, February 12, 2005

Furniture, Spain: 17th century

The Golden Age of Spain during the 17th century also left its mark on the chair. Paintings show a type of chair with a relatively crude wooden frame; a back and seat, nailed on, consisting of two layers of leather, with horsehair stuffing in between, stitched to produce a pattern of small pads. The front board and a corresponding board at the back could be folded after loosening

Great Auk

The

Friday, February 11, 2005

Aldridge, Ira Frederick

Accounts of his life in the United States are conflicting. The great British-American actor James William Wallack is believed to have engaged him as a personal attendant while on a passage from the United States to England, where Aldridge established himself

Thursday, February 10, 2005

Econometrics

The statistical and mathematical analysis of economic relationships, often serving as a basis for economic forecasting. Such information is sometimes used by governments to set economic policy and by private business to aid decisions on prices, inventory, and production. It is used mainly, however, by economists to study relationships between economic

Wednesday, February 09, 2005

China, The first historical dynasty: the Shang

In addition to the works of Chang, Watson, and Rawson mentioned in the previous paragraph, the following works are also informative: Kwang-chih Chang, Early Chinese Civilization: Anthropological Perspectives (1976), and Shang Civilization (1980), on Shang archaeology and culture; Tsung-tung Chang, Der Kult der Shang-Dynastie im Spiegel der Orakelinschriften (1970); David N. Keightley, Sources of Shang History: The Oracle-Bone Inscriptions of Bronze Age China (1978, reprinted 1985); Wen Fong (ed.), The Great Bronze Age of China (1980), an analytic catalog of an exhibition from the People's Republic of China; and Paul Wheatley, The Pivot of the Four Quarters (1971), a comparative study of the origins of urban society.

Monday, February 07, 2005

Giri, Varahagiri Venkata

Giri began his education at Khallikote College, Berhampore, and then went to Dublin to study law. There he became engaged in the Sinn Féin movement and was expelled from Ireland in 1916. Upon his return to India, he joined the nascent labour movement. He became general secretary and

Gerzean Culture

Also called  Naqadah Ii Culture,   predynastic Egyptian cultural phase given the sequence dates 40–65 by Sir Flinders Petrie and later dated c. 3400–c. 3100 BC. Evidence indicates that the Gerzean culture was not brought by invaders but was rather a further development of the culture of the Amratian period, which immediately preceded the Gerzean. Centred primarily at Naqadah and Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt, and Sayala

Saturday, February 05, 2005

Australia, Music

Like the other arts in Australia, music has two distinct traditions: those of the European colonists and those of the indigenous peoples, whose singing and ritual playing of the didjeridu (a drone instrument) reenact the ancient traditions related to a mythological time called the Dreaming, the Aboriginal conception of creation. Contemporary Aboriginal bands

Table Tennis

At the 1997 world table tennis championships in Manchester, Eng., China again dominated play, winning six of the seven titles. The men's team from China defeated France (the first time since 1948 France had reached the final), while the women's team downed North Korea. Deng Yaping, the 24-year-old 1992 and 1996 Olympic champion, won her third world singles championship, then announced her retirement.

Thursday, February 03, 2005

Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics

(U.S.S.R.)  also called  Soviet Union  Russian  Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik , or  Sovetsky Soyuz  former northern Eurasian empire (1917/22–1991) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean and, in its final years, consisting of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (S.S.R.'s)–Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belorussia (now Belarus), Estonia, Georgia, Kazakstan, Kirgiziya (now Kyrgyzstan), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (now Moldova), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

Wednesday, February 02, 2005

Turda

City, Cluj judet (county), west-central Romania, on the Aries River. Turda was first a Dacian settlement (Dierna) and later a Roman castrum (Potaissa), around which grew a municipium and later a colony. On the outskirts of the city are the salt mines worked in Roman times. In the Middle Ages, Turda was the meeting place of the Transylvanian Diet. The city is now an important industrial

Meinong, Alexius

After studying under the philosophical psychologist Franz Brentano from 1875 to 1878 in Vienna, he joined the faculty of philosophy at the

Tuesday, February 01, 2005

Doris

The alleged mother country of the Dorian conquerors of the Peloponnese. It was a small district in central Greece, lying between Mounts Oeta (modern Oiti) and Parnassus and consisting of a narrow valley nowhere exceeding 4 miles (6 km) in breadth, with only four small townships. Doris had some importance because it commanded the road from Heraclea in Trachis to Amphissa,